Umar, the second Caliph, defined by precept of Islam and by his own example, the rights and privileges of non-Muslims, for example the following contract with the Christians of Jerusalem:
"This is the protection which the servant of Allah, 'Umar, the Ruler of the Believers has granted to the people of Eiliya [Jerusalem]. The protection is for their lives and properties, their churches and crosses, their sick and healthy and for all their coreligionists. Their churches shall not be used for habitation, nor shall they be demolished, nor shall any injury be done to them or to their compounds, or to their crosses, nor shall their properties be injured in any way. There shall be no compulsion for these people in the matter of religion, nor shall any of them suffer any injury in account of religion...Whatever is written herein is under the covenant of Allah and the responsibility of His Messenger, of the Caliphs and of the believers, and shall hold good as long as they pay Jizya [the tax for their defence] imposed on them."
"Those non-Mulsims who took part in defence together with the Muslims were exempted from paying Jizya, and when the Muslims had to retreat from a city whose non-Muslims had paid this tax for their defence, the tax was returned to the non-Muslims. The old, the poor and the disabled of Muslims and non-Muslims alike were provided for from the public treasury and from Zakat funds." http://www.esinislam.com/Muslim_Biography/Al-Khulafa_The_Caliphs/Al-Khulafa_The_Caliphs_Umar.htm
“So if they dispute with you, say ‘I have submitted my whole self to Allah, and so have those who follow me.’ And say to the People of the Scripture and to the unlearned: ‘Do you also submit yourselves?’ If they do, then they are on right guidance. But if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message. And in Allah’s sight are all of His servants.” [Surah Al ‘Imran: 20];
“The Messenger’s duty is but to proclaim the Message.” [Sûrah al-Mâ’idah: 99].
On a final note, this is a covenant that the Prophet Muhammad himself made via a Charter of Privileges to Christians (in a letter to the monks of St. Catherine Monastery):